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标题:北极圈惊现高温 回顾人类探索北极的历史

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约1893年,罗伯特-皮尔里中尉的北极探险。
North pole expedition of lieutenant peary, historical illustration, ca. 1893 (photo by: bildagentur-online/uig via getty images)
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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1893年到1896年间,由挪威探险家弗里乔夫·南森带领的探险队到达北极。1894年4月6日三名探险者在北极观测日蚀。
Three explorers observe the sun eclipse of April 6, 1894, during the expedition led by Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) to reach the North Pole between 1893 and 1896, illustration from the magazine L'Illustration, year 55, no 2820, March 13, 1897.
2018-08-03 17:41:14
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1875年,这艘名为Alerte的船只在北极的比奇角被冰封。
UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 2002: The Alerte ship locked in by ice in the Arctic at Cape Bechey, 1875. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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1856年至 1920年,探险家罗伯特·皮尔里的北极探险。他1909年到达北极,是第一个到达北极的人。
North pole expedition of robert edwin peary, 1856 - 1920, arctic explorer who claimed to have been the first person to reach the north pole in 1909, historical picture, about 1893 (photo by: bildagentur-online/uig via getty images)
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爱德华·芬登根据乔治·巴克的一幅素描雕刻的。1823年在伦敦出版。内容是关于富兰克林远征队,在1819年,1820年,1821年和1822年的极地海岸之旅。富兰克林于1845年在另一次探险中去世,他的整个探险队都死于饥饿和坏血病,尽管富兰克林死后被认为是西北通道的发现者。
CANADA : Engraving by Edward Finden after a drawing by George Back (1796-1878), one of the members of John Franklin?s (1786-1847) expedition, from Franklin?s ?Narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea, in the years 1819, 20, 21, and 22?, published in London in 1823. Franklin died in 1845 during another expedition, as did his entire team who perished of starvation and scurvy, although Franklin was posthumously credited with the discovery of the Northwest Passage. (Photo by SSPL/Getty Images)
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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1909年,罗伯特-皮尔里的北极探险。
UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 2002: Robert Edwin Peary's expedition to the North Pole, 1909. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
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南森的弗雷姆号探险,挪威探险家弗里乔夫·南森试图利用北冰洋的自然东西流到达北极点,面对来自其他极地探险家的许多挫折,南森带着他的船来到新西伯利亚。在北冰洋东部的里昂群岛,船被冻在浮冰里,等着漂流物把船带到极点去。
Nansen's Fram expedition, 1893-1896, was an attempt by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen to reach the geographical North Pole by harnessing the natural east-west current of the Arctic Ocean, In the face of much discouragement from other polar explorers Nansen took his ship Fram to the New Siberian Islands in the eastern Arctic Ocean, froze her into the pack ice, and waited for the drift to carry her towards the pole. (Photo by Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty Images)
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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大约1900年,北极地区地图。图上标明着探险家弗里乔夫·南森在弗雷姆号船上向北极探险的路线。
UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 1900: Cartography. Map of the Arctic region indicating the route followed by explorer Fridtjof Nansen on board of ship Fram towards the North Pole, 1893-1896. (Photo By DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/De Agostini/Getty Images)
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罗纳德·恩格尔伯特·阿蒙森的北极探险营地的帐篷。
UNSPECIFIED - CIRCA 2002: Roald Engelbert Amundsen (1872-1928) expedition to the North Pole: a tent in the camp. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
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1928年3月20日,意大利罗马。意大利号飞艇被从钱皮诺的飞机库中拖出,等待在翁贝托·诺比尔的指导下,由探险队把它带到北极。
The airship Italia being pulled out of the hangar in Ciampino where it has been stored in recent days, waiting for the expedition that is going to bring it to the North Pole, under the guidance of Umberto Nobile. Rome (Italy), March 20th, 1928. (Photo by Mondadori Portfolio via Getty Images)
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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1906,北极。挪威探险家罗尔德·阿蒙森,在北冰洋探险时和他的船员们在乔亚号船上合影留念。
Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen (Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen) posing on the Gjoa vessel with his crew during his expedition in the Arctic Sea. Arctic, 1906 (Photo by Mondadori Portfolio via Getty Images)
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5月1日,格陵兰。工人们正在对极地研究站的逃生舱口进行测试。
GREENLAND - MAY 01: Workers test one of a polar research station's escape hatches, Camp Century, Greenland (Photo by W. Robert Moore/National Geographic/Getty Images)
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1928,北极。意大利指挥官阿尔弗雷多·维格利里在北极探险期间查看飞艇的飞行路线。
The Italian commander Alfredo Viglieri watching the rout of the airship during the expedition to the North Pole. Arctic, 1928 (Photo by Mondadori Portfolio via Getty Images)
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弗里乔夫·南森在北极进行科学探险时使用的探测船弗雷姆。
Polar Exploration, (1893-1896), The exploration ship Fram that Fridtjof Nansen used in the Arctic for his scientific explorations (Photo by Bob Thomas/Popperfoto/Getty Images)
2018-08-03 16:28:27
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5月1日,格陵兰世纪营。人们站在北极前哨的隧道。
GREENLAND - MAY 01: Men stand outside barracks in an Arctic outpost's tunnel, Camp Century, Greenland (Photo by W. Robert Moore/National Geographic/Getty Images)
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1925年,英国人在北极探险的第一张照片。探险队刚刚在北极地区完成了研究,预计一个月后返回英国。博物学家兼摄影师碧·梅森先生随身携带一只蜂王作为吉祥物。这只蜜蜂被关在火柴盒里,死在法兰士约瑟夫地群岛。照片显示了建在石冢上的蜂王墓。这个地方现在在地图上被称为api点。
Arctic: First Pictures Of British Arctic Expedition 1925. Franz Joseph Land...The above expedition has just completed its researches in the Arctic regions and is expected back in England in a month. Three members of the crew, Commander Worsley, Bee Mason and Scout Marr, were previously with a skeleton in the Quest. Mr. Bee Mason, naturalist and photographer, took with him a queen bee as a mascot. The bee was housed in a matchbox and died in the region of Franz Joseph Land. Photo shows the Cairn erected over the grave of the queen bee. The place is now known on the map as Point Apis. On left is Mr. Mason and W. A. S. Thom, noted scientist on right.
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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前苏联科学家在北极地区的浮冰上建立了一个观察站,在那里,拖拉机正在拉着一辆坏了的汽车,这是该项目发布的一系列照片之一。该项目旨在研究极地地区的气象条件。目的是与美国在北极附近长期建立的类似研究保持同步。
Tractor rescues disabled auto at one of the observation stations set up by Soviet Union scientists atop an ice floe in the Arctic region. This is one of a series of photographs released on the program, set up to study meteorological conditions in the polar area. It seeks to keep abreast with similar American research, long established near the North Pole.
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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加利福尼亚,圣拉斐尔市的路易丝·博伊德小姐。无需任何费用,将自己雇来远征格陵兰岛的船提供给挪威政府使用,以帮助寻找探险家罗尔德·阿蒙森。
California Woman Aids In New Hunt For Amundsen! Miss Louise Boyd of San Rafael, California, has placed the sealing ship Hobby at the disposal of the Norwegian Government, free of any cost, to aid in the search of explorer Roald Amundsen. The vessel had been hired by Miss Boyd for an expedition off Greenland.
2018-08-03 17:17:26
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1931年6月4日,从美国海军租来的诺第留斯号潜水艇离开马萨诸塞州的普罗文斯敦,开始了它的第一段旅程,这段旅程到达离北极几百英里的地方。经验丰富的探险家休伯特·威尔金斯爵士指挥了这次行动,这是首次尝试从潜艇上探索极地区域。虽然没有到达极点,但休伯特爵士和他的科研人员获得了许多具有科学价值的数据。在经历了一些惊心动魄的冒险之后,这艘潜艇在九月份返回了文明世界,并从死亡中逃脱。在上面的图片中,诺第留斯号是在极地冰中,即将沉入极地海底。
On June 4, 1931, the submarine Nautilus which had been rented from the United States Navy, left Provincetown, Massachusetts, on the first leg of a journey which was destined to take it to within a few hundred miles of the North Pole. Sir Hubert Wilkins, veteran air explorer was in command of this, the first attempt to explore the polar area from a submarine. Although the pole was not reached, Sir Hubert and his scientific staff obtained much data of scientific value. The sub returned to civilization in September after experiencing some hair-raising adventures and escapes from death. In the above picture, the Nautilus is shown amid Polar ice, about to plunge to the bottom of the Polar sea. The insert shows Sir Hubert Wilkins.
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约1893年或1897年,斯科特·汉森。斯科特·汉森乘坐“弗雷姆”号参加了为期三年的北极探险。他是海军中尉,领航员和科学助理。他是南森团队中最年轻的一个。
Sigurd Scott-Hansen', 1893, (1897). Sigurd Scott-Hansen (1868-1937) took part to the three year expedition (1893-1896) aboard the 'Fram'. He was the first lieutenant in the navy and navigator and scientific assistant. He was the youngest of Nansen's crew. From Farthest North, Vol. 1 by Fridtjof Nansen. [Archibald Constable and Company, London, 1897]. Artist Unknown. (Photo by Print Collector/Getty Images)
1976-01-01 00:00:00
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约1894到1897(1899)年,苏格兰极地探险家,艾伯特·博莱斯·阿米蒂奇。阿米蒂奇在杰克逊·哈斯沃斯探险队对北极法兰士约瑟夫地群岛探险中管理六分仪。他负责编制天文、气象和磁记录。经过三年的考察,法兰士约瑟夫地群岛实际上是一个小群岛,而不是像弗雷德里克·乔治·杰克逊等人所认为的那样,延伸到北极的大片陆地。
Albert Borlase Armitage, Scottish polar explorer, c1894-c1897 (1899). Armitage (1864-1943) using a sextant while on the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition to Franz-Josef Land in the Arctic. He was responsible for compiling astronomical, meteorological and magnetic records. The three-year expedition established that Franz Josef Land was in fact a small archipelago rather than a land mass that extended to the North Pole, as its leader, Frederick George Jackson, had believed. A print from A Thousand Days in the Arctic, by Frederick G Jackson, Volume II, Harper & Brothers, London, 1899. (Photo by The Print Collector/Print Collector/Getty Images)
1976-01-01 00:00:00
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1862,伊丽莎·肯特·凯恩,美国海军医生,北极探险家??鞑渭恿肆酱翁较?,分别是1850年和1853年,为了寻找失踪的极地探险家约翰·弗兰克林爵士。1845年,弗兰克林爵士率领一支128人的探险队去寻找西北航道??髀柿斓奶较斩用挥姓业礁ダ伎肆?。直到1858年才发现失踪的弗兰克林尸体
Elisha Kent Kane (1820-1857), American naval surgeon and arctic explorer in arctic dress, 1862. Kane took part in two expeditions, in 1850 and 1853, searching for the missing polar explorer Sir John Franklin, who commanded a 128-man expedition to find the North-west Passage in 1845. The expeditions, the latter of which Kane led, failed to Franklin, and the bodies of the lost explorers were not found until 1858. (Photo by Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images)
1976-01-01 00:00:00
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北极。奥托·施密特教授北极科学考察的首批照片之一。竖立在浮冰上的主帐篷侧面的文字写着:“1937年,苏联,北海航线首席行政官的漂流探险”。
One of the first pictures of Professor Otto Schmidt's scientific expedition to the North Pole. The writing on the side of the main tent, erected on the ice floe, reads 'USSR, the Drifting Expedition of the Chief Administration of the Northern Sea Route-1937'. | Location: North Pole. (Photo by ? Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images)
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诺登斯科德·阿道夫·埃里克男爵,原籍瑞典和芬兰的极地探险家和博物学家。
Nordenskjold (Nordenski?ld), Adolf Erik, Baron (1832-1901). Polar explorer and naturalist Swedish Finnish origin. Engraving. (Photo by Ipsumpix/Corbis via Getty Images)
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“我们乘坐潜艇潜入北极的计划并不是鲁莽之举。事实上,我们经过科学论证,总的来说,这只是一次普通的冒险。这是著名的探险家休伯特·威尔金斯爵士对他即将尝试在北极寒冷的荒原下航行的看法。
(Original Caption) ...'There is nothing foolhardy in our plan to go under the North Pole in a submarine. In fact, with scientific knowledge, we already have, it's hardly more than a commonplace venture.' That, in brief is what Sir Hubert Wilkins, the famous explorer and air traveler, thinks of his forthcoming attempt to sail under the frigid wastes of the Arctic. (Photo by ? Bettmann/CORBIS/Bettmann Archive)
1976-01-01 00:00:00
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文字报道来源:中国科技网
//www.stdaily.com/kjrb/kjrbbm/2018-08/08/content_697838.shtml

欧洲被热浪侵袭,北极熊登上令人心碎的热门?!?2℃的北极圈,无家可归的北极熊面临灭顶之灾”持续刷屏,极地变暖被视为元凶。
“热”是近期北半球的关键词?!氨奔ζ赂叽?2℃”的新闻主角是挪威北部一个叫Banak的气象站,此地往年20多℃的气温在今夏突破30℃。

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